In Yorkshire, as in other upland areas, farmers receive payment under agri-environment stewardship schemes which are agreed, farm by farm, with the aim of securing maximum environmental benefit. The schemes are run by Defra (Department for Environmental and Rural Affairs). In Wensleydale a new pilot scheme is being trialled by 19 farmers: this is called ‘Payment by Results’.
We have met a couple of farmers who have spoken to us about this with enthusiasm – farmers in the trial will be the ones to monitor their land and catalogue habitats and species (such as particular flowers, grasses or birds) and report on what they find, and any changes they notice. There’s a sense that doing it this way, rather than accepting payments ahead of time and not being in charge of monitoring, brings with it a sense of involvement and empowerment. Payments will be made to reflect the quality of habitats, so that farmers will be paid for producing species-rich meadows and/or good quality habitat for breeding waders such as curlew, snipe, lapwing and redshank.
The payments, in keeping with all agri-environment (AE) schemes, subsidise the costs to the farmer of managing their land less intensively than they otherwise would to maximise profits.
Wensleydale is one of two pilot areas in England for this three-year “Payment by Results” project, being coordinated by Natural England and delivered in partnership with the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority (YDNPA), which is acting on behalf of the Northern Upland Chain Local Nature Partnership (NUCLNP).
The big difference between Payment by Results and the previous and current AE schemes such as Countryside Stewardship is that it carries no prescriptions for the farmer. Instead of following a set of rules, such as strict mowing dates, farmers are free to manage the land as they see fit in order to achieve a positive environmental outcome or result.
The farmers will annually assess the well-being of habitats against a set of agreed indicators to achieve an overall “health” score. From this self-assessment, they can measure their success and set targets for the following year.
For meadows, the greater the number of plant species, the higher the payment, ranging from £112 – £371 per hectare. For breeding waders, good results include the right rush cover, varied sward height and a high quantity of wet features. A farmer will be marked down, and receive a lower payment, if the land is heavily poached, or cut up because of use of heavy machinery. Payments range from £35 – £174 per hectare.
One of the Wensleydale farmers in the pilot, Tom Fawcett, 58, representing CH Fawcett and Sons of Nappa Scar, Askrigg, told the National Park: “It’s a good scheme and I hope it succeeds, because it is helping to preserve hay meadows and wetland habitats. There’s not too much red tape and you’re letting farmers get on with it. Without this compensation, you’d need to increase your stocking ratio to meet rising costs. That would mean improving the land by draining it, or adding lime or fertiliser.
“I only hope this scheme is carried on. Millions of pounds have been wasted when ESA schemes have been dropped overnight, with land being improved after the payments stopped.”
YDNPA’s Senior Farm Conservation Officer, Helen Keep, said: “‘Payment by Results’ is designed to be simpler and more cost-effective than previous and existing agri-environment schemes. It works on the principle that farmers know their land better than anyone, and should not be required to follow prescribed land management methods. The scheme challenges them to produce results, in other words environmental benefits, rather than to follow management plans.”
“The project has been developed in consultation with farmer groups up and down the northern Pennines. Farmers’ involvement in the design of the scheme has ensured that it is understandable, practical and achievable.”
The Chair of the NUCLNP, Professor David Hill, said: “We believe that hill farming is critical to the economy, communities and environment of the Yorkshire Dales and the rest of the northern Pennines. Through the LNP, farmers, environmental bodies and agencies are working together to find new ways to support the economic viability of low-intensity farming methods that are more environmentally friendly. We’re delighted that Natural England is working directly with the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority to test out this innovative approach, which we hope can then be rolled out to other parts of the northern Pennines.”
Thank you to the Yorkshire Dales National Park Authority for the information we’ve shared here. We will be talking to farmers over the next few months about their views on this – one of a number of changes that are happening this year. Farming is always changing and adapting, and this is an interesting step towards a new model that may, depending on results, become the norm for Yorkshire Farmers. With Brexit looming, and the uncertainty this brings, trials like this seem well timed.